ACTIVITY 3: TOD MODEL PROJECT
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a sustainable transportation approach from the principle of improving access, facilities and area development to ensure mobility, promote urban spatial structure (land use) and enhance urban development opportunities that will generate enormous economic, financial, social, and environmental benefits. Currently, the TOD is being acknowledged by the central and local governments to solving the congestion problem, especially cities with complex transportation problems such as Jabodetabek area.
To support the development of TOD in appropriate way, the case study of TOD model project in JUTPI Phase 2 is expected to enhance capacity of urban transportation related agencies to implement Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) projects in Jabodetabek, which in turn will give a great benefit and impact for urban development in relation with urban mass transportation system. The scope of TOD Model project comprises the formulation of concept plan, transport access improvement, and recommendation on necessary improvement of regulation and institutional framework with expected outputs are: TOD concept plan of model project (including basic design), and proposal on TOD implementation plan.
In general, there are several steps in conducting TOD model project as described below:
After the location has been selected, the process will be continued to step 4 (conducting case study) which consists of five steps i.e (1) determination of TOD coverage area, (2) TOD situation analysis and impact; (3) formulation of TOD concept plan; (4) design of TOD model project; (5) TOD implementation plan. Output of each step will be exposed through workshop and discussion.
B. Progress of TOD Model Project
Process of conducting TOD model project has started since June 2017. For 9 months, this activity has completed some steps from location selection up until situation analysis. Here is the summary of highlighted activities in TOD model project.
1. Selection Process
Selection process took 4 months from June – October. This process started by sorting 51 locations of TOD potential in RITJ (Rencana Induk Transportasi Jabodetabek/Greater Jakarta Transportation Master Plan) to 11 locations proposed by BPTJ (Badan Pengelola Transportasi Jabodetabek/Greater Jakarta Transportation Authority). These 11 locations were selected based on the proximity to mass transit such as MRT, LRT, and commuter line. Assessment and evaluation of locations were considering five factors: 1) position; 2) effectivity of public transport enhancement; 3) location; 4) applicability to another TOD project, and 5) economy & social impact.
After the assessment and evaluation, then Poris Plawad was selected as the TOD model project of JUTPI Phase 2. The most substantial aspect for this selection is the area characteristic which is undeveloped yet has big potential due to infrastructure plans. This selection had been confirmed to the counterparts through the 1st TOD workshop in December 2017.
2. The 1st TOD Workshop
The 1st TOD workshop, ”TOD Model Projects and Determination of TOD Project Coverage Area” was held on 6th of December 2017. This workshop aimed to introduce TOD model project of JUTPI Phase 2 as well as to determine the coverage area and set up boundary of TOD model project with case study in Poris Plawad.
There are three speakers presented: two are experts from JUTPI Phase 2 long term experts, Mr. Junkichi Kano and Mr. Takeshi Mita, and the Mr. Dwi Hariyawan, Director of Spatial Utilization from the Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Planning (ATR/BPN).
Points of discussions were focused on lesson learned (best practice) of TOD projects in Japan, standard and procedure of TOD, and how to determine coverage area settings of TOD Projects. A group exercise was held to involve participants and get their notion of TOD coverage area setting in the last session.
3. Setting up Coverage Area and Boundary
Following the workshop, the coverage area of TOD model project was set by conducting site visit, observations, and small survey. There are four factors in determining coverage area, i.e: (1) radius of walking distance (within approximately 800 m), (2) roads, rivers, railway, etc, (3) town, village, and district boundaries, and (4) change point of land use such as commercial, industrial, residential area, and green spaces.
TOD Model Project Area Coverage of Poris Plawad
Some potentials and obstacles were found during site visit. From this process, present condition and issue findings were revealed. Site details were described comprises the social environment, land use, economy and transport, also natural environment. This process resulting in several improvements required to enhance the living quality, especially access (road network) from north to south, traditional market, and public facilities such as park and health facilities.
4. Socioeconomic Analysis and Counterpart Meeting on Economic Aspect
Counterpart meeting on economic aspect was held on 28th of February 2018. This meeting aims to introduce economic and financial aspects, as well as project evaluation in JUTPI Phase 2. In addition, preliminary analysis about socioeconomic status of TOD Model Project in Poris Plawad was presented. In this meeting, there were some insights about TOD area development and transfer knowledge from expert regarding land value capture (LVC) as funding sources for public investment.
5. TOD Situation and Regional Analysis
After the TOD coverage area has determined, the next step is to analyze the condition and impact of TOD. At this stage, all data and plans were elaborated to find area’s issues and potentials to be analyzed in order to produce a complete picture of the condition of the region and formulate a concept plan for the development of the TOD Model Project area in Poris Plawad, Tangerang City. In this step, comprehensive analysis was conducted, encompass current urban and transport development issues as well as regional analysis to examined wider scale (macro), mezzo scale, and micro scale to get the notion of surrounding area in Poris Plawad.
In a regional perspective, Poris Plawad located in the suburban center, as well as gate of Kota Tangerang. With this strategic location, Poris Plawad can be a feeder to airport (airport link) and complimentary of Kalideres Terminal. Regarding the land use, it is surrounded by low to middle density housing and non-polluted industrial area.
In the area within walking distance scale, some highlighted points are:
1) Buffer zone of housing area and industrial area in the North Area.
2) Main Road and River as a boundary in the West and South side (community area).
3) Change point of land use in the East side.
Situation of Area within Walking Distance
The existing condition shows that there are few urban facilities in the area, narrow road connecting to the station and industrial zone, lack of sidewalk, underutilized bus terminal, unmaintained traditional market, and poor river condition which need to be improved.
6. The 2nd TOD Workshop
The 2nd TOD model project workshop was held on 2nd of August 2018 entitled "Regional Setting and Area Concept Plan”. The main objectives of this workshop is to get additional information and to discuss the TOD model project of Poris Plawad. This event was proposed to elaborate the ideas and concepts of TOD development at the regional scale and the area around the station, so that people will understand TOD in sub-urban areas for regional development and the importance of determining functional zones as concept plan.
Main topic of the second workshop was about situation analysis and impact of TOD as well as formulation of concept plan. This workshop was held to expose the condition and impact of TOD obtained from data and analysis regarding area’s potential and challenges to formulate a concept plan for the development of the TOD Model Project area in Poris Plawad, Tangerang City.
Some points that to be emphasized in the 2nd TOD Workshop are:
1. Issue and potential of area
2. Transport development orientation (road network, public transit, road improvement, pedestrian space, traffic management)a
3. Urban development orientation (functional zoning, land use conversion, new urban function and facilities, opportunities for urban development).
• Public transport network (rail, bus) is formulated while access roads of the station area is limited.
• Landuse is mostly residential area and industrial zone, while there are small commercial areas along trunk roads (out of walking distance.)
• Road network shall be consistent with access roads to bus terminal and railway station.
• Urban development around station will shall enhance convenience and comforts of bus& railway passengers, residents and employees by providing new commercial and public services.
In general, discussion was very fruitful. Participants had understood the rationale and basic concepts of TOD as they were able to design area concept plan. Various ideas of road network and land use functions for urban developments were acquired to enrich the concept of TOD area development for JUTPI 2.
Opening session by Mr. Tulus Hutagalung from CMEA
Presentation session by Mr. Junkichi Kano and Ms. Tomoko Abe from JUTPI 2
Exercise session in the 2nd TOD Workshop
Output of Group Discussion
This workshop has resulted in a concept plan and ideas for improving the area, including road network plans, future land use plans, and environmental orientation.
7. Formulation of TOD Concept Plan (Step 3)
Concept plan is a rough or basic concept to develop area which propose transport network and urban development orientation. It is a countermeasure of the current issue and potential to enhance environment quality. TOD concept plan were focusing on the integration of transport nodes (bus terminal, station), road network, pedestrian friendly district, also land use conversion and provision of urban and public facilities.
TOD Concept and Orientation
TOD Conceptual Zoning
Development Direction in the TOD Area
8. The 3rd TOD Workshop
The 3rd workshop was held in January 2019 with topic "TOD Implementation Planning and Development of Station Plaza". This workshop aimed at providing an in-depth understanding of the concept of a TOD area plan from the perspective of transportation planning, facilities and TOD implementation planning. There were four presenters from Japanese expert, they are Ms. Tomoko Abe, Mr. Takeshi Mita, and Mr. Minoru Matsui.
Some points that emphasize in the 3rd TOD Workshop are:
1. Detail concept plan and orientation in terms of urban development, transportation network, and environment.
2. Station plaza development in designated TOD area
3. TOD implementation planning focusing on project identification and development method.
Vision and TOD Concept Plans are proposed.
• Vision: A new livable gateway city to airport, suburban areas and the city center.
• Landuse: To convert from mono residential and industrial uses into mixed use
• Transport: To improve road network and public transport services
• Environment: To create public open space and walkways by utilizing existing greens
It is expected that participants would acquire some knowledge and new perspective about TOD concept plan, urban facility, and project implementation planning as they are be able to draft a design, identify projects and determine development method for TOD area development. Further discussion and elaboration are needed to implement the concept plan and design into realization.
9. TOD Implementation Plan and 4th TOD Workshop
The last step of TOD model project activity is TOD implementation plan. After concept plan has been clearly described, then project implementation plan is formulized, including master plan arrangement, development orientation, and transportation facilities around the TOD area which emphasized on station plaza development. Based on TOD Concept Plan and station plaza development of Poris Plawad, TOD Implementation Planning are proposed (step 4), and “Stakeholder Coordination” is discussed in 4th TOD Workshop with theme “TOD Area Development Scenario and Land Readjustment Simulation”.
Objective of 4th TOD Workshop
The objective of the fourth TOD workshop was to understand implementation mechanism of TOD (implementation process, role of stakeholder, project framework, cost allocation, and benefit of TOD) and to discuss the viability of TOD. Some points that to be emphasized in the 4th TOD Workshop are:
1. Overall JUTPI 2 activities related to TOD, review of activities and outcomes.
2. Station plaza development and calculation method.
3. Implementation process of TOD and key factors of TOD implementation.
4. Implementation Plan and development methods of Poris Plawad TOD area
5. Benefit of TOD case study of Poris Plawad TOD area.
It is expected that participants would acquire some understanding about TOD implementation mechanism and benefit of TOD, as for group discussion, it is proposed that participants were able to determine some issues and obstacles in TOD implementation and understand the role of stakeholders to propose some solutions and a proper coordination scheme to overcome the issues.